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Shift Work and CVD

“People working evening, night, or rotating shifts have a slightly higher risk of heart disease [39]. Research on long work hours (overtime work) point to a wide variety of health effects, including increases in work accidents and injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, psychological symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (such as smoking or alcohol use), cardiovascular risk factors (such as high blood pressure), and CVD [40-43]. Prolonged exposure to work may act to increase fatigue thereby increasing heart disease risk while rest breaks, days off, and vacations all provide relief and lower risk. The stress of returning to work after a weekend off increases risk as increased heart disease deaths have been reported for Mondays compared to other days of the week [44]. Beginning in 1958, research has suggested that long working hours may increase risk of heart disease [45-50]. Much research has been conducted in Asia, beginning with the interest in Japan about Karoshi—“sudden death from overwork” [51]. The impact of overtime on health may be greater for workers in stressful jobs, such as professional drivers [52], shift workers [43], and older workers [41, 53].”

Taken from: Schnall PL, Dobson M, Rosskam E, Editors Unhealthy Work: Causes, Consequences, Cures. Baywood Publishing, 2009.

Taken from: Schnall PL, Dobson M, Rosskam E, Editors Unhealthy Work: Causes, Consequences, Cures. Baywood Publishing, 2009.

39. Steenland, K., Shift Work, Long Hours, and CVD: A Review, Occupational Medicine: State-of-the-Art Reviews, 15:1, pp. 7-17, 2000.

40. Spurgeon, A., J. M. Harrington, and C. L. Cooper, Health and Safety Problems Associated with Long Working Hours: A Review of the Current Position, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 54:6, pp. 367-375, 1997.

41. Sparks, K., C. Cooper, Y. Fried, and A. Shirom, The Effects of Hours of Work on Health: A Meta-Analytic Review, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, pp. 391-408, 1997.

42. van der Hulst, M., Long Workhours and Health, Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, 29:3, pp. 171-188, 2003.

43. Caruso, C., E. Hitchcock, R. Dick, J. Russo, and J. Schmit, Overtime and Extended Work Shifts: Recent Findings on Illnesses, Injuries, and Health Behaviors, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH, pp. 1-49, 2004.

44. Barnett, A. and A. Dobson, Excess in Cardiovascular Events on Mondays: A Meta-Analysis and Prospective Study, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59:2, pp. 109-114, 2005.

45. Russek, H. I. and B. L. Zohman, Relative Significance of Heredity, Diet, and Occupational Stress in Coronary Heart Disease of Young Adults, American Journal of Medical Science, 235, pp. 266-275, 1958.

46. Theorell, T. and R. H. Rahe, Behavior and Life Satisfactions of Swedish Subjects with Myocardial Infarction, Journal of Chronic Disease, 25, pp. 139-147, 1972.

47. Alfredsson, L., C. Spetz, and T. Theorell, Type of Occupation and Near-Future Hospitalization for Myocardial Infarction and Some Other Diagnoses, International Journal of Epidemiology, 14, pp. 378-388, 1985.

48. Falger, P. R. J. and E. G. W. Schouten, Exhaustion, Psychologic Stress in the Work Environment and Acute Myocardial Infarction in Adult Men, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 36, pp. 777-786, 1992.

49. Liu, Y. and H. Tanaka, Overtime Work, Insufficient Sleep, and Risk of Nonfatal Acute Myocardial Infarction in Japanese Men (the Fukuoka Heart Study Group), Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59, pp. 447-451, 2002.

50. Sokejima, S. and S. Kagamimori, Working Hours as a Risk Factor for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Japan: Case-Control Study, British Medical Journal, 317, pp. 775-780, 1998.

51. Nishiyama, K. and J. V. Johnson, Karoshi—Death from Overwork: Occupational Health Consequences of Japanese Production Management, International Journal of Health Services, 27:4, pp. 625-641, 1997.

52. Raggatt, P., Work Stress among Long-Distance Coach Drivers: A Survey and Correlational Study, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, pp. 565-579, 1991.

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