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Smoking and Job Strain

“Studies have shown that workers facing job strain (or its components—high job demands and low job control) smoke more (if they are smokers) or have greater difficulty quitting smoking [110-113]. In some studies, workers with job strain are heavier and exercise less [110, 114, 115]. Workers with low job control have higher levels of plasma fibrinogen, a chemical in the blood that contributes to atherosclerosis, that is, hardening of the arteries [116, 117]. And workers with low job control or job strain, in some studies, show greater atherosclerosis in the arteries in the heart or the arteries going to the brain [118-121]. High blood pressure also contributes to atherosclerosis [122].”

Taken from: Schnall PL, Dobson M, Rosskam E, Editors Unhealthy Work: Causes, Consequences, Cures. Baywood Publishing, 2009.

110. Hellerstedt, W. L. and R. W. Jeffery, The Association of Job Strain and Health Behaviours in Men and Women, International Journal of Epidemiology, 26:3, pp. 575-583, 1997.

111. Kawakami, N., T. Haratani, and S. Araki, Job Strain and Arterial Blood Pressure, Serum Cholesterol, and Smoking as Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Japan, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 71:6, pp. 429-432, 1998.

112. Green, K. L. and J. V. Johnson, The Effects of Psychosocial Work Organization on Patterns of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chemical Plant Employees, American Journal of Public Health, 80, pp. 1368-1371, 1990.

113. Landsbergis, P. A., P. L. Schnall, D. K. Deitz, K. Warren, T. G. Pickering, and J. E. Schwartz, Job Strain and Health Behaviors: Results of a Prospective Study, American Journal of Health Promotion, 12:4, pp. 237-245, 1998.

114. Siegrist, J. and A. Rodel, Work Stress and Health Risk Behavior, Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, 32:6, pp. 473-481, 2006.

115. Johansson, G., J. V. Johnson, and E. M. Hall, Smoking and Sedentary Behavior as Related to Work Organization, Social Science and Medicine, 32, pp. 837-846, 1991.

116. Markowe, H. L., M. G. Marmot, M. J. Shipley, et al., Fibrinogen: A Possible Link between Social Class and Coronary Heart Disease, British Medical Journal, 291, pp. 1312-1314, 1985.

117. Brunner, E. J., G. D. Smith, M. G. Marmot, R. Canner, M. Beksinska, and J. O’Brien, Chi l dhood Soci al Ci r cumst ances and Psychosoci al and Behavi or al Fact or s as Determinants of Plasma Fibrinogen, Lancet, 347, pp. 1008-1013, 1996.

118. Langosch, W., B. Brodner, and M. Borcherding, Psychosocial and Vocational Long- Term Outcomes of Cardiac Rehabilitation with Postinfarction Patients under the Age of Forty, Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, pp. 115-128, 1983.

119. Muntaner, C., F. J. Nieto, L. Cooper, J. Meyer, M. Szklo, and H. A. Tyroler, Work Organization and Atherosclerosis: Findings from the Aric Study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, pp. 9-18,
1998.

120. Hintsanen, M., M. Kivimaki, M. Elovainio, et al., Job Strain and Early Atherosclerosis: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, Psychosomatic Medicine, 67:5, pp. 740-747, 2005.

121. Rosvall, M., P. O. Ostergren, B. Hedblad, S. O. Isacsson, L. Janzon, and G. Berglund, Work-Related Psychosocial Factors and Carotid Atherosclerosis, International Journal of Epidemiology, 31:6, pp. 1169-1178, 2002.

122. Steptoe, A. and M. Marmot, Atherogenesis, Coagulation and Stress Mechanisms, Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 15:1, pp. 136-138, 2000.

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